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Studien zum Thema Wirkmechanismus der Akupunktur


Abstract Acupuncture needle manipulation has been previously shown to result in measurable changes in connective tissue architecture in animal experiments. In this study, we used a novel in vivo ultrasound (US)-based technique to quantify tissue displacement during acupuncture manipulation in humans. B-scan ultrasonic imaging was performed on the thighs of 12 human subjects at different stages of needle motion, including varying amounts of rotation, downward and upward movement performed with a computer-controlled acupuncture needling instrument. Tissue displacements, estimated using cross-correlation techniques, provided successful mapping and quantitative analysis of spatial and temporal tissue behaviour during acupuncture needle manipulation. Increasing amounts of...
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Relationship of Acupuncture Points and Meridians to Connective Tissue Planes

Abstract Acupuncture meridians traditionally are believed to constitute channels connecting the surface of the body to internal organs. We hypothesize that the network of acupuncture points and meridians can be viewed as a representation of the network formed by interstitial connective tissue. This hypothesis is supported by ultrasound images showing connective tissue cleavage planes at acupuncture points in normal human subjects. To test this hypothesis, we mapped acupuncture points in serial gross anatomical sections through the human arm. We found an 80% correspondence between the sites of acupuncture points and the location of intermuscular or intramuscular connective tissue planes in...
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Evidence of connective tissue involvement in Acupuncture

Abstract Acupuncture needle manipulation gives rise to ‘needle grasp’, a biomechanical phenomenon characterized by an increase in the force necessary to pull the needle out of the tissue (pullout force). This study investigates the hypothesis that winding of connective tissue rather than contraction of muscle is the mechanism responsible for needle grasp. Authors: HELENE M. LANGEVIN, DAVID L. CHURCHILL, JUNRU WU, GARY J. BADGER, JASON A. YANDOW, JAMES R. FOX, AND MARTIN H. KRAG Published in: FASEB J. 2002 Jun;16(8):872-4. Epub 2002 Apr 10. Quelle:

Central and Peripheral Mechanism of Acupuncture Analgesia on Visceral Pain: A Systematic Review

Abstract Background/Aims: Despite the wide use of acupuncture for the management of visceral pain and the growing interest in the pathophysiology of visceral pain, there is no conclusive elucidation of the mechanisms behind the effects of acupuncture on visceral pain. This systematic review aims to provide an integrative understanding of the treatment mechanism of acupuncture for visceral pain. Methods: Electronic and hand searches were conducted to identify studies that involved visceral pain and acupuncture. Results: We retrieved 192 articles, out of which 46 studies were included in our review. The results of our review demonstrated that visceral pain behaviors were...
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Anatomical Evidence of Acupuncture Meridians in the Human Extracellular Matrix: Results from a Macroscopic and Microscopic Interdisciplinary Multicentre Study on Human Corpses

Abstract For more than 2500 years, acupuncture has been applied to support the healing of different diseases and physiologic malfunctions. Although various theories of the meridian system and mechanisms were formulated to explain the functional basis of acupuncture, the anatomical basis for the concept of meridians has not been resolved. The aim of the present study was to search for replicable anatomical structures that could relate to meridians. To this end, four human specimens and additionally two lower legs were dissected anatomically. Our study found evidence that acupuncture meridians were part of the human extracellular matrix and that fascia was...
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IL-10 Cytokine Released from M2 Macrophages Is Crucial for Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Acupuncture in a Model of Inflammatory Muscle Pain

Abstract Muscle pain is a common medical problem that is difficult to treat. One nonpharmacological treatment used is acupuncture, a procedure in which fine needles are inserted into body points with the intent of relieving pain and other symptoms. Here we investigated the effects of manual acupuncture (MA) on modulating macrophage phenotype and interleukin-10 (IL-10) concentrations in animals with muscle inflammation. Carrageenan, injected in the gastrocnemius muscle of mice, induces an inflammatory response characterized by mechanical hyperalgesia and edema. The inflammation is initially a neutrophilic infiltration that converts to a macrophage-dominated inflammation by 48 h. MA of the Sanyinjiao or Spleen...
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The anti-inflammatory effect of acupuncture and its significance in analgesia

Abstract In the mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia, an important aspect often overlooked is the anti-inflammatory effect of acupuncture, which is mainly attained through the self-limiting inflammatory response-inflammatory reflex and its regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal(HPA) axis and autonomic nerve system (the vagus nerve and the sympathetic postganglionic fiber). The significance of anti-inflammatory effect of acupuncture in analgesia is manifested twofold: The first, inflammatory nociceptive pain is a major type of chronic pain. The second, neurogenic inflammation is the mechanism by which certain acupoints or acu-reflex points (ARPs) are formed at the body surface and have short-cut connections to the pathological focus. Selecting ARPs and applying appropriate sensory stimulation or local microtrauma (affected by different needling means or stimulation parameters), combined with low-frequency electrical stimulation or the vagus stimulation in the...
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Acupuncture Trials in Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials

February 2019 Here are some interesting statistics on the growth of acupuncture research over the past decade. The number of acupuncture trials included in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials has grown from 2,015 in February 2009 to 11,923 on 1st February 2019. In the past year from February 2018 to today, 1,884 new studies have been added.

Overview of Treatment Guidelines and Clinical Practical Guidelines That Recommend the Use of Acupuncture: A Bibliometric Analysis.

Quote J. McDonald: „A recently published review on treatment guidelines and clinical practice guidelines has identified a significant surge in the number of new positive recommendations for acupuncture from a total of over 870 in 2015 to 2,189 in August 2017. These recommendations come from around the world but particularly from North America, Europe and Australasia“ Abstract INTRODUCTION: As positive evidence emerges for the use of an intervention to treat a health problem, the intervention gradually becomes incorporated into treatment guidelines (TGs) or clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) that are related to that health problem. To assess whether this general hypothesis...
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Acupunture treatment dosage

How many acupuncture treatments will it take for your patient to see significant improvement? How many acupuncture treatments should you recommend? Quelle: How many acupuncture treatments will it take? It can be difficult for acupuncturists to estimate the number of treatments it will take. I feel that this should be discussed more during our education. Here are the guidelines I use to make this estimation, if you’d like to see. But I wanted to know what other acupuncturist’s experiences are with this. I’d like to be able to guide acupuncturists based on a big sample size, rather than just...
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A New Definition of an Acupuncture Meridian

Abstract This article provides a new definition of an acupuncture meridian. It suggests that a meridian consists of a distal tract of tissue that is affected by organ function. In the 1960s, Kim discovered the primo vascular system and regarded the superficial primo vessels as equating to the meridians. Instead, this article suggests that the superficial primo vessels merely underlie the meridians, in that they enable their creation, which is why some meridians are said to occur along the paths of superficial primo vessels. But the meridians themselves do not have a dedicated anatomical structure; instead they are merely tracts of tissue whose normal...
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Traditional Acupuncture Triggers a Local Increase in Adenosine in Human Subjects

ABSTRACT Acupuncture is a form of Eastern medicine that has been practiced for centuries. Despite its long history and worldwide application, the biological mechanisms of acupuncture in relieving pain have been poorly defined. Recent studies in mice, however, demonstrate that acupuncture triggers increases in interstitial adenosine, which reduces the severity of chronic pain through adenosine A1 receptors, suggesting that adenosine-mediated antinociception contributes to the clinical benefits of acupuncture. We asked here whether acupuncture in human subjects is also linked to a local increase in interstitial adenosine concentration. We collected microdialysis samples of interstitial fluid before, during, and after delivering 30...
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The Science Behind Acupuncture and Why It Really Works

Article from “The greatest” The concept of turning a human into a pincushion makes some people squeamish, but the practice clearly appeals to many after all, acupuncture has been around for more than 3,000 years and is currently practiced almost everywhere in the world. Rooted in key principles of traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture is based on the idea of creating and sustaining balance within the body. The two sides are yin, which is nourishing, receptive, and protective, and yang, which is hard, dominant, and energetic. The circulation between these forces is the qi. Traditionally, an acupuncturist inserts fine needles into...
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What Is the Point? The Problem with Acupuncture Research That No One Wants to Talk About

Helene M. Langevin, MD, and Peter M. Wayne, PhD ABSTRACT Despite having made substantial progress in academic rigor over the past decades, acupuncture research has been the focus of long-standing and persistent attacks by skeptics. One recurring theme of critics is that the concept of acupuncture points has no scientific validity. Meanwhile, the subject of whether-or-not acupuncture points “exist” has been given too little attention within the acupuncture research community. In this article, we argue that failure to use clear terminology and rigorously investigate the subject of acupuncture points has hindered the growing legitimacy of acupuncture as an evidence-based therapy....
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The Acupuncture Evidence Project: Plain English Summary 

The following is a plain English summary of the findings of the Acupuncture Evidence Project (McDonald J, and Janz S, 2017). The full document (81 pages) is available from the Australian Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine Association Ltd (AACMA), Bottom Line Our study found evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture for 117 conditions, with stronger evidence for acupuncture’s effectiveness for some conditions than others. Acupuncture is considered safe in the hands of a well-trained practitioner and has been found to be cost effective for some conditions. The quality and quantity of research into acupuncture’s effectiveness is increasing. Background Acupuncture originated...
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Studientypen in der medizinischen Forschung

Teil 3 der Serie zur Bewertung wissenschaftlicher Publikationen ZUSAMMENFASSUNG Hintergrund: Die Wahl des geeigneten Studientyps ist ein wichtiger Aspekt des Designs medizinischer Studien. Das Studiendesign und somit auch der Studientyp entscheiden über wissenschaftliche Qualität und Aussagekraft einer Studie. Methode:Der Artikel beschreibt die Einteilung und Strukturierung von Studien in Primärforschung und Sekundärforschung sowie die weitere Unterteilung von Studien der Primärforschung. Dies geschieht anhand einer selektiven Literaturrecherche zu Studientypen in der medizinischen Forschung und auf Basis der Erfahrung der Autoren. Ergebnis:Bei Studientypen können die drei Hauptbereiche medizinische Grundlagenforschung (häufig synonym:experimentelle Forschung),klinische und epidemiologische Forschung unterschieden werden. Eine weitere sinnvolle Unterteilung von Studientypen...
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Physiologische Mechanismen der analgetischen Akupunkturwirkung – ein Update im klinischen Kontext

Originalia | Original Articles Author links open overlay panel P.I.Bäumler, D.Irnich Show more Get rights and content Zusammenfassung Einleitung Physiologische Wirkungen der Akupunktur in der Behandlung von Schmerzen sind Gegenstand von über drei Jahrzehnten Forschung. Zielsetzung Aktuelle Übersicht über die Wirkmechanismen der Akupunktur-induzierten Analgesie Methodik Es wurde eine ausführliche Recherche auf der Basis relevanter Übersichtsarbeiten der letzten Jahre, deren Sekundärliteratur („Schneeballrecherche”) und MEDLINE-Recherchen zu den einzelnen Unterpunkten mithilfe gängiger Suchwörter durchgeführt. Die Studienergebnisse wurden entsprechend der folgenden Teilbereiche zusammengefasst: 1. Bedeutung der Endorphine und Aktivierung der absteigenden Schmerzhemmung 2. Wirkung auf das autonome Nervensystem 3. Veränderte zerebrale Schmerzverarbeitung 4. Segmentale Inhibition...
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Neuroscience of Acupuncture

Diese Grafik gibt eine wunderbare Übersicht über all die biochemischen Vorgänge die die Wirkung der Akupunktur erklären…

How Acupuncture works on the Immune System Discovery

Quelle (17 NOVEMBER 2017): Researchers conclude that acupuncture benefits the immune system. In a controlled laboratory experiment, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine researchers discovered that electroacupuncture stimulation of acupuncture point ST36 (Zusanli) “enhanced the level of immune cytokines and splenic CD4+ T cells through TRPV channels.” [1] In addition, the researchers document that electroacupuncture applied to ST36 enhances serum interferon-γ (IFN-γ) levels, interleukin (IL)-2, and IL-17. Results were confirmed using immunohistochemical analysis. The research measured the effects of electroacupuncture and precisely identified that electroacupuncture at ST36 enhances cytokines, which are proteins secreted by cells that have a specific effect...
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How Acupuncture works Anti-inflammatory

Quelle (03 FEBRUARY 2017): Acupuncture reduces inflammation and researchers have discovered how it works. In a laboratory controlled scientific investigation, a key biological marker has been identified, quantified, and directly correlated with the application of acupuncture. Acupuncture successfully downregulates a proinflammatory biochemical (tumor necrosis factor alpha), which results in anti-inflammatory responses. In addition, the researchers have mapped the neural pathways by which acupuncture signaling stimulates anti-inflammatory effects. Crystal Structure of TNF-α Researchers in Korea have identified a mechanism by which acupuncture stimulation at the acupoint ST36 (Zusanli) has an anti-inflammatory effect. By downregulating tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), acupuncture...
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“Four Gates” has specific effects on brain

The acupuncture point combination known as the “Four Gates” (Siguan – a combination of bilateral Hegu L.I.-4 and Taichong LIV-3) can elicit specific activities in the brain, conclude Chinese scientists. Thirty-one healthy volunteers were randomly divided into real acupoint and sham acupoint (needled at a location one cm away from the real points) groups. fMRI data were acquired during acupuncture stimulation. Results showed an extensive increase in neuronal activities with Siguan acupuncture and significant differences between stimulation at real and sham points. Brain regions that were activated more by real acupuncture stimulation than by sham point acupuncture included the somatosensory...
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Pains and needles: brain scans point to hidden effects of acupuncture

Placebo acupuncture can ease short-term pain but the real thing might help to reverse the underlying pathology of a disease. In the past when acupuncture was subjected to trials there was only a small effect above placebo, and often no difference at all. Doctors in China have been pushing needles into patients’ skin, supposedly to restore the flow of healing “qi energy”, for more than 4,000 years. Sometimes it feels as though researchers in the west have been arguing about the practice for almost as long. After more than 3,000 clinical trials of acupuncture, many scientists are convinced that despite...
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An fMRI Study of Neuronal Specificity in Acupuncture: The Multiacupoint Siguan and Its Sham Point

Introduction Acupuncture is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that has been used for thousands of years with empirical evidence of effectiveness. Recently, clarifying the intrinsic mechanisms of its clinical effects has become increasingly popular research. According to the traditiona ltheory of acupuncture, stimulation at specific acupoints will produce effective bodily responses that can be used to treat certain diseases. Much research has been devoted to demonstrating the mechanisms underlying acupoint specificity. Since the1990s, development in noninvasive brain imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has accelerated the progress of connecting the effects of acupuncture...
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Adenosine A1 receptors mediate local anti-nociceptive effects of acupuncture

ABSTRACT Acupuncture is an invasive procedure commonly used to relieve pain. Acupuncture is practiced worldwide, despite difficulties in reconciling its principles with evidence-based medicine. We found that adenosine, a neuromodulator with anti-nociceptive properties, was released during acupuncture in mice and that its anti-nociceptive actions required adenosine A1 receptor expression. Direct injection of an adenosine A1 receptor agonist replicated the analgesic effect of acupuncture. Inhibition of enzymes involved in adenosine degradation potentiated the acupuncture-elicited increase in adenosine, as well as its anti-nociceptive effect. These observations indicate that adenosine mediates the effects of acupuncture and that interfering with adenosine metabolism may prolong...
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Acupuncture’s painkilling secret revealed: it’s all in the twist action

July 23, 2015 Ever since Chinese doctors first poked their patients with sharp objects 4,000 years ago, and charged them for the pleasure, acupuncture has been shrouded in mystery.Tradition has it that the procedure works by improving the flow of “qi” along invisible energy channels called meridians, but research published today points to a less mystical explanation for the painkilling claims of acupuncture. The answer, according to a team of scientists in New York, follows an extraordinary study in which researchers gave regular acupuncture sessions to mice with sore paws. After each half-hour session the mice felt less discomfort in their...
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Acupuncture Regulates the Nervous System Research

Quelle (02 JUNE 2013): New evidence demonstrates acupuncture activates specific regions of the brain for the treatment of specific diseases. Investigators from the Acupuncture and Moxibustion Department of Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine also find that acupuncture regulates neurotransmitters as a mechanism to modulate autonomic nervous system responses. The review article notes that further investigation is required to differentiate the effects of specific acupuncture points versus the medicinal effects elicited by needling along the acupuncture meridians. The review focused on a great body of modern research and uncovered many of the mechanisms by which acupuncture exerts its medicinal...
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Acupuncture Painkilling Effect Found

Quelle (13 JANUARY 2017): Acupuncture is effective for pain relief. Researchers from the University of South Florida (Tampa) and the Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Fuzhou) document that acupuncture alleviates pain, in part, by regulation of microglial cells. These are non-neural cells that comprise part of the central nervous system structure. Scientists already knew that microglial cells act as macrophages at sites of damaged central nervous system tissue. The research team (Lin et al.) from the University of South Florida (Department of Neurosurgery and Brain Repair, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences) along with researchers from the Fujian University of...
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A Review of the Current Acupunctur Mechanisms of Action from Both an Eastern and Western Perspective

INTRODUCTION Acupuncture is a Chinese medical technique that utilizes stimulation of anatomical points on the body through a variety of techniques, although it has been synonymously identified with the use of thin, metallic needles. It has been historically practiced in China several millennia, and has been gaining popularity in the United States over the past few years [1]. In 2015, National Health Statistic Reports from the National Health Interview Survey published a report, which included a comprehensive survey on the use of complementary health approaches by Americans; roughly 3.4 million U.S. adults had used acupuncture in 2012 [2]. Traditionally, acupuncture...
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Now Acupuncture Proven A Powerful Anti-Inflammatory

Quelle (23 FEBRUARY 2014): Researchers at the Department of Surgery, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School have discovered that a form of acupuncture called electroacupuncture controls inflammation and may help to save lives. The researchers proved that electroacupuncture fights infections including polymicrobial peritonitis. In addition, they found that electroacupuncture reduces severe systemic inflammation due to infections, sepsis. The researchers discovered that the anti-inflammatory effects of electroacupuncture “are voltage dependent.” Non-acupuncture points (sham points) did not exert anti-inflammatory responses. Additionally, “electroacupuncture with a wooden toothpick” did not reduce inflammation. Only true acupuncture (verum acupuncture) was effective in regulating cytokine levels, producing anti-inflammatory...
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