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Studien zum Thema Kinderheilkunde

Auricular Acupressure Improves Habit Reversal Treatment for Nail Biting

Abstract Objective: Nail biting leads to a variety of health issues. Habit reversal treatment is a major approach to cease nail biting, but is often ineffective since patients continue to suffer from anxiety, a major trigger. This study investigated whether the potential anxiety relief provided by auricular acupressure could improve the efficacy of habit reversal treatment, as evidenced by improved stomatological and other outcomes. Methods: In a pragmatic, randomized, crossover, pilot clinical trial, 83 nail biters (8–12 years old) received habit reversal treatment in combination with either auricular acupressure intended to reduce anxiety (Method A) or placebo auricular acupressure (Method...
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Auricular Medicine in Neonatal Care

Abstract This article explores the possibilities of applying ear acupuncture to newborn infants. In addition to the use of needle acupuncture, there are also noninvasive applications that are preferred for patients in this particular age group. Based on the limited literature, ear acupuncture could be an effective nonpharmacologic approach for the treatment of pain in newborn infants and for addressing symptoms of neonatal abstinence syndrome. However, studies on safety, side-effects, and other indications are still lacking. Introduction Ear acupuncture is a special form of acupuncture—a somatotopic kind of acupuncture. The ear arises during the development of a human being from a...
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Effects of acupuncture on muscle tension of lower limb in children with spastic cerebral palsy

Abstract OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of acupuncture at different acupoints in yin meridians and yang meridians on lower limb muscle tension in children with spastic cerebral palsy. METHODS: Ninety children with spastic cerebral palsy aged between 2 to 6 years old were divided into a yin-meridian group, a yang-meridian group and a rehabilitation group, 30 cases in each one. The patients in the rehabilitation group were treated with routine rehabilitation treatment; the patients in the yin-meridian group were treated with routine rehabilitation treatment and acupuncture at Xuehai (SP 10), Yinlingquan (SP 9), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Taixi (KI 3) and...
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Non-insertive acupuncture beneficial for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Non-insertive acupuncture (NIA) could be a useful adjunctive treatment in newborns with Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS), according to a research team from the USA. NAS is caused when pregnant women abuse narcotics. A variety of withdrawal symptoms are observed in babies with NAS, including prolonged crying, poor feeding habits, pain, gastrointestinal disturbances and inability to sleep. The NIA protocol consisted of the stimulation of seven standard acupuncture points on each infant. Pressure was applied to each point with a ‘teishin’ (a small metal rod with a rounded tip) or finger, for five to ten seconds. Points were used based on...
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Minimale Akupunktur von Di 4 ist effektiv bei Säuglingskoliken

Eine Fallserien Studie von 913 Säuglingen, durchgeführt in Schweden hat gezeigt, dass eine minimale Akupunktur von Hegu (Di 4) eine effektive und einfache Behandlung bei Säuglingskoliken darstellt. Die Säuglinge (Durchschnittsalter 5,4 Wochen) litten seit zwei Wochen nach ihrer Geburt an Koliken. Sanfte Nadelstimulation von Hegu (Di 4) wurde 10-20 Sekunden lang beidseits durchgeführt, es wurde täglich behandelt, durchschnittlich 6,2 Tage lang. Vor der Behandlung wurden die Säuglinge von ihren Eltern nach Symptomen wie „geblähten Bauch“ (99%), „sabbert selten“ (76%) „Regurgitationen“ (53%), und „Rülpsen“ (62%) bewertet. Die berichtete Stuhlfrequenz war 5-8x täglich (64%), mit einer gelblich-grünlichen Stuhlfarbe (61%) und einer wässig-dünnen...
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Laserakupunktur kann kleine Bettnässer und ihre Eltern unbeschwerter schlafen lassen

Im Vergleich mit Desmopressin zeigte Laserakupunktur eine bessere und nachhaltigere Wirksamkeit bei der Behandlung von Kindern mit nächtlicher Enuresis. Nächtliches Einnässen während des Schlafes tritt bei etwa 15%  bis 20 % der Kinder im Alter von 5 Jahren auf. Auch ältere Kinder und Erwachsene können von einer Enuresis betroffen sein. Oft ist die Ursache unklar. Ein sehr tiefer Schlaf, eine vermehrte Harnproduktion oder auch eine kleine Blasenkapazität können das Erwachen im nassen Bett bedingen. Für die Kinder und ihre Eltern bedeutet dies oftmals Stress und Schamgefühle. Neben einer medikamentösen Behandlung mit einem Antidiuretikum werden auch Alternativen wie ein Weckalarm, ausgelöst...
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Laser acupuncture in children with headache: a double-blind, randomized, bicenter, placebo-controlled trial

ABSTRACT To investigate whether laser acupuncture is efficacious in children with headache and if active laser treatment is superior to placebo laser treatment in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of low level laser acupuncture in 43 children (mean age (SD) 12.3 (+/-2.6) years) with headache (either migraine (22 patients) or tension type headache (21 patients)). Patients were randomized to receive a course of 4 treatments over 4 weeks with either active or placebo laser. The treatment was highly individualised based on criteria of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The primary outcome measure was a difference in numbers of headache days...
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Laser Acupuncture for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is usually treated with opiate derivatives and supported with nonpharmacological treatment. METHODS: This prospective, randomized, controlled, blinded, single-center study was carried out between March 2009 and November 2014. Newborn infants diagnosed with NAS after maternal opioid substitution therapy were eligible for inclusion. Infants were randomly allocated to the acupuncture group (combining laser acupuncture and pharmacological therapy of morphine and phenobarbital) or control group (pharmacological therapy alone). Laser acupuncture was performed with a LABpen MED 10 (675 nm/10 mW) at 5 ear and 4 body acupuncture points, bilaterally, and sessions were repeated every day. The primary outcome...
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LASER ACUPUNCTURE EFFECTIVE FOR CHILDREN’S HEADACHES

Researchers in Germany carried out a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of laser acupuncture in 43 children (mean age 12.3 years) with various types of headache. Patients received a course of four treatments over four weeks with either active or placebo laser. The acupuncture treatment was individualised based on TCM criteria. Follow up continued for another 12 weeks. The mean number of headaches experienced per month decreased significantly by 6.4 days in the treated group (vs a decrease of 1.0 days in the placebo group). Headache severity and monthly hours with headache were also found to decrease significantly at all time...
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Kurzsichtigkeit einfach wegdrücken?

Brille tragen ist bei Kindern nicht sehr beliebt, auch nicht in China. Dort wurde unlängst in einer Studie geprüft, ob Ohrakupressur Abhilfe schaffen kann. Myopie, so der Fachbegriff für Kurzsichtigkeit, ist vor allem in hochtechnisierten Ländern weit verbreitet. Durch verstärkte Sehaktivitäten im Nahbereich (Lesen, Computer-, Handynutzung) passt sich das Auge diesen Anforderungen an, gleichzeitig kann es aber zu einem Verlust der Sehschärfe bei dem Blick in die Ferne kommen. Schulkinder haben dann oft Schwierigkeiten zu erkennen, was an die Tafel geschrieben wird, was wiederum ein Nachlassen der Konzentration und Lernprobleme nach sich ziehen kann. In Deutschland ist bei den regelmäßig...
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Minimal acupuncture at L.I.-4 effective for infantile colic

A case series study of 913 infants, carrided out in Sweden has shown that minimal acupuncture at Hegu L.I.-4 is an effective and easy treatment for infantile colic. The infants (mean age 5.4 weeks) had displayed colic symptoms since two weeks after birth. Light needle stimulation of Hegu L.I.-4 was performed for 10-20 seconds bilaterally on a daily basis for a mean of 6.2 consecutive days. Before treatment the infants were assessed by the parents in terms of ‘often have inflated stomachs’ (99%), ‘seldom drool’ (76%), ‘regurgitate’ (53%) and ‘belch’ (62%). In addition, the reported frequency of defecation was 5-8...
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Herbal formula reduces Tourette’s tics

A Chinese herbal formula, ‘Ningdong granules’ (NDG), has been shown to reduce tics in children with Tourette’s syndrome. The formula, which contains the herbs Tian Ma (Rhizoma Gastrodiae), Dang Shen (Radix Codonopsis), Mai Men Dong (Radix Ophiopogonis) Bai Shao (Radix Paeoniae alba), Long Gu (Fossilia Ossis Mastodi), Mu Li (Concha Ostreae), Di Long (Pheretima) and Gan Cao (Radix Glycyrrhizae) has previously been used in China the treatment of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in China. In a randomised, double-blind study 120 paediatric Tourette’s patients were randomly divided into four groups. One group received NDG, another received usual drug treatment,...
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Elektroakupunktur als Behandlungsoption bei Internetsucht

Im Vergleich mit einer psychologischen Behandlung erwies sich der Therapieansatz der Traditionellen Chinesischen Medizin zur Regulation der Impulskontrollstörung bei internetsüchtigen jungen Erwachsenen als effektivere Maßnahme. Die zunehmende Digitalisierung in den vergangenen Jahrzehnten hat unser Leben in vielerlei Hinsicht verändert. Ein negativer Aspekt ist das Phänomen der Internet-Abhängigkeit, das sich in einem exzessiven Online-Verhalten insbesondere jüngerer Menschen äußert und zu Symptomen wie mentalen Störungen, Herzrasen, Vergesslichkeit, Schlafstörungen und Appetitmangel führen kann. Ob es sich um ein Sucht- oder Zwangsverhalten handelt, ist bei Experten noch umstritten. Bisherige Behandlungsansätze stützen sich zumeist auf psychologische Therapieverfahren. In der Traditionellen Chinesischen Medizin wird der mit...
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Electrical stimulation at HE-7 eases anaesthetic recovery in children

Electrical stimulation of Shenmen HE-7 during surgery can prevent agitation in paediatric patients recovering from general anaesthesia, report Japanese clinicians. Emergence agitation, in which children experience a variety of behavioural disturbances, including crying, thrashing and disorientation, is common in children recovering from anaesthesia. One hundred and twenty infants aged 18 to 96 months, who were undergoing minor elective surgery under general anaesthesia, were randomly assigned to two groups: a treatment group who received bilateral stimulation at Shenmen HE-7 with a peripheral nerve stimulator device and a control group that did not undergo electrical stimulation. The incidence of emergence agitation was...
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Efficacy of Acupuncture in Children with Nocturnal Enuresis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Background. Nocturnal enuresis (NE) is recognized as a widespread health problem in young children and adolescents. Clinical researches about acupuncture therapy for nocturnal enuresis are increasing, while systematic reviews assessing the efficacy of acupuncture therapy are still lacking. Objective. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture therapy for nocturnal enuresis. Materials and Methods. A comprehensive literature search of 8 databases was performed up to June 2014; randomized controlled trials which compared acupuncture therapy and placebo treatment orpharmacological therapy were identified. Ametaanalysis was conducted. Results. This review included 21 RCTs and a total of 1590 subjects. The overall methodological...
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Ear acupuncture reduces acute migraine pain in children

Auricular acupuncture (AA) may be useful in the treatment of paediatric migraines in the emergency department (ED), according to preliminary research from the USA. In a prospective cohort study, 19 paediatric patients presenting with active migraines received a single AA treatment using semi-permanent needles inserted at a maximum of three acupoints located according to electrical resistance or pressure along two auricular migraine lines. Fifteen minutes after the treatment all subjects reported improvement or resolution of migraine, with a clinically and statistically significant mean reduction in pain of seven points on a ten point scale. Auricular Acupuncture for the Treatment of...
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Durchatmen dank Laserakupunktur

Kinder mit Asthma profitieren von ergänzender Low-Level-Lasertherapie. Der Einsatz von Kortikoiden kann reduziert werden. Asthma ist eine der häufigsten chronischen Erkrankungen bei Kindern. Bedingt durch verschiedenartige Reize, wie z.B. Allergene, (Passiv-)Rauchen oder auch psychische Faktoren, kommt es zu einer Verengung der Bronchien verbunden mit pfeifenden Atemgeräuschen, Husten und Atemnot. Ein Anfall kann von einigen Stunden bis zu mehreren Tagen andauern und wirkt beängstigend und belastend auf die betroffenen Personen und ihr Umfeld. Eine konventionelle Behandlung erfolgt in der Regel durch Inhalation von Glukokortikoiden, die zwar schnelle Linderung bringen, jedoch auch mit unerwünschten Nebenwirkungen verbunden sind. Eine bereits in zahlreichen klinischen...
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Analysis of Evidence-Based Autism Symptoms Enhancement by Acupuncture

ABSTRACT Autism is considered as a complex developmental disability that appears during the first two years of life. It is considered as a neurological disorder that affects brain function leading to impaired development in social interaction and communication skills. Some clinical trials demonstrated that certain acupuncture points play relatively significant role in improving both signs and symptoms of this disease. Owing to limited information available about acupuncture point’s combination and protocols, the present study aimed to explore the most frequently used acupuncture points and their channels for children with autism. Thirteen articles about autism enhancement were selected from 2007 to...
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Acustimulation reduces paediatric post-operative nausea & vomiting

Stimulation of the Neiguan P-6 acupuncture point is an effective adjunctive treatment for post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in children undergoing adenoidectomy or tonsillectomy. A pragmatic randomised controlled trial carried out in Norway enrolled 154 children who were undergoing day-surgery. The intervention group received acupuncture at Neiguan P-6 bilaterally for a median of 21 minutes during anaesthesia, followed by acupressure wristbands for 24 hours, alongside standard drug treatment. The control group received standard treatment. The results showed that children in the acustimulation group experienced less significantly retching and vomiting than the control group (46.8% vs 66.2%). The effect of acustimulation...
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ACUPUNCTURE REDUCES POSTOPERATIVE PAEDIATRIC PAIN

American clinicians have carried out a nonrandomised pilot study to determine the feasibility of acupuncture for acute postoperative pain control in hospitalised children. 20 patients (aged 7 months to 18 years) who had undergone a variety of surgical interventions received two 10 to 15-minute sessions of acupuncture 24-48 hours apart. The treatment was found to be highly acceptable (of 27 patients approached, four refused, and of 23 patients enrolled, 20 patients completed the study), well-tolerated and without adverse events. In follow-up interviews, 70% of both parents and patients believed acupuncture helped the child’s pain. Eighty-five percent of parents said they...
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Acupuncture reduces pain after tonsillectomy

Intraoperative acupuncture results in reduced pain and earlier return to eating for children undergoing tonsillectomy, according to American researchers. Fifty-nine children were randomised to receive verum or sham acupuncture during anesthesia for tonsillectomy. Home surveys of patients revealed significant improvements in pain control in the acupuncture treatment-group post-operatively and oral intake of food also occurred significantly earlier in the acupuncture treatment group. Intraoperative acupuncture for posttonsillectomy pain: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Laryngoscope. 2015 Apr 7. doi: 10.1002/lary.25252. An Israeli team has also concluded that acupuncture, as an adjunct to analgesic treatment, is an effective treatment for post-tonsillectomy pain in...
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Acupuncture reduces colicky crying

Swedish researchers have shown that minimal acupuncture can shorten the duration and reduce the intensity of crying in infants with colic. Ninety otherwise healthy infants (2-8 weeks old) with infantile colic were randomised to receive six acupuncture treatments over three weeks or no acupuncture. Parents were blinded to the allocation of their children. Infants allocated to acupuncture were given minimal, standardised acupuncture for two seconds at Hegu L.I.-4. The results showed that children who had acupuncture recovered from colic more quickly than those who did not. Infants in the acupuncture group also exhibited less distress (fussing, crying and colicky crying)...
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Acupuncture reduces colic in infants

Acupuncture can reduce crying in infants with colic, according to a Swedish study. In a three-armed randomised trial, 147 infants received usual care together with either standardised minimal acupuncture (at Hegu L.I.-4), or semi-standardised individual acupuncture based on TCM (any combination of Sifeng M-UE-9, Hegu L.I.-4 and Zusanli ST-36), twice a week for two weeks. The effect of the two types of acupuncture was similar and both were superior to standard care alone. Relative to baseline, there was a greater reduction in time spent crying by the second week in infants receiving both types of acupuncture. Effect of minimal acupuncture for...
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Acupuncture lessens pain of dental treatment

Stimulation of Hegu L.I.-4 can reduce pain in children during dental anaesthetic injection. Children scheduled for dental treatment using local anaesthesia received bilateral acupuncture at Hegu L.I.-4 (using intradermal needles). During the dental treatment, the patients’ parents stimulated the needles by massage. Two different treatment regimes were compared: standardised local anaesthetic (LA) injection given five minutes after acupuncture, and LA injection without acupuncture. The order of treatment was randomised, with the two treatments performed in a crossover manner on different days. Data were obtained from 49 patients. Patients reported less pain when acupuncture was used (mean pain score 2.3 versus...
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Acupuncture improves paediatric asthma

A prospective, randomised trial carried out in Denmark has found that acupuncture can reduce asthma symptoms and medication use in preschool children. The researchers randomised 122 children to either acupuncture (10 treatments) or usual care over a period of three months. Significant reductions were observed in subjective asthma symptoms and the use of inhaled steroids and beta-2 agonists in both groups at the end of the three-month treatment course. Compared with the control group, the reduction in asthma symptoms and use of inhaled steroids was significantly larger in the acupuncture group. However, at eight-month follow-up, these differences had disappeared. (Acupuncture...
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Acupuncture improves autistic symptoms

A short course of electro-acupuncture (EA) can improve specific functions in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), especially language comprehension and self-care ability. Fifty-five children with ASD were randomly assigned to an EA group or a sham electro-acupuncture (SEA) group. The EA group received electro-acupuncture at eight acupoints: Sishencong (M-HN-1), Yintang (M-HN-3), Neiguan P-6, Shenmen HE-7, Taichong LIV-3, Sanyinjiao SP-6 and the ear points Naodian and Shenmen. The SEA group received sham electro-acupuncture at sham acupoints 3-5 mm from the selected acupoints used for the EA group. Both groups received a total of 12 sessions over four weeks. At the...
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Acupuncture for Recovery from Pediatric Sport-Related Concussion

ABSTRACT Background: Sport-related concussion is a major concern for young athletes because a growing number of children participate in sport-related activities. Postconcussive symptoms can lead to physical, academic, and social impairment. There is no definitive treatment for sport-related postconcussive symptoms, and most available pharmacologic therapies have potential side-effects. Cases: The aim of this case report is to describe the use of acupuncture in the management of sport-related postconcussive symptoms in 3 pediatric patients. All 3 patients presented with chronic postconcussive symptoms that did not improve with conventional treatments alone. A retrospective chart review was performed from 2012 to 2015 on...
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ACUPUNCTURE FOR CHILDREN

Research from the Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, in Boston, Massachusetts, United States, found that acupuncture can be safely and successfully incorporated into paediatric pain management practice. Over a one-year period, 243 children (167 females and 76 males) mean age 14.3 years received an average of 8.4 sessions of acupuncture treatments. At the initial consultation, the chief complaints included pain in the low back, the hips and lower extremities (30%), abdomen (25%), head (23%), neck, shoulder, arm (10%), chest (6%), pelvis (4%), and others (2%). At the end of the six-week treatment period, mean pain scores decreased from 8.3...
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ACUPUNCTURE FOR CHEMO INDUCED NAUSEA AND VOMITING IN CHILDREN

Researchers have investigated whether acupuncture can reduce the need for antiemetic medication during chemotherapy in paediatric oncology. A multicentre crossover study carried out at five hospitals in Germany enrolled 23 children, mean age 13.6 years, who were receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy for the treatment of solid malignant tumours. Patients were randomly allocated to receive acupuncture treatment during either the second or third identical chemotherapy course together with standard antiemetic medication. Forty-six chemotherapy courses with or without acupuncture were compared. The need for rescue antiemetic medication was found to be significantly lower in acupuncture courses compared to control courses. Episodes of...
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Acupuncture complements wearing spectacles for lazy eye

Acupuncture can complement the use of spectacles to correct anisometropic amblyopia (lazy eye) in children, according to researchers in Hong Kong. Eighty-three children with the condition were randomised to receive spectacles alone (group 1) or spectacles + acupuncture (group 2) for 15 weeks, and the two groups were then crossed over to receive the other regimen for another 15 weeks. In both groups, acupuncture treatment was associated with significant improvement in the visual acuity of the amblyopic eye. (Adjunctive Effect of Acupuncture to Refractive Correction on Anisometropic Amblyopia One-Year Results of a Randomized Crossover Trial. Ophthalmology. 2011 Apr 2. Quelle:...
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Acupuncture best for nocturnal enuresis

A systematic review carried out by Chinese authors suggests that acupuncture may be more effective than pharmacological treatment for childhood nocturnal enuresis. The study analysed data from 21 RCTs involving 1590 individuals. Meta-analysis revealed that acupuncture significantly improves clinical efficacy in enuretic children when compared with either placebo acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine or the drug Meclofenoxate. Efficacy of Acupuncture in Children with Nocturnal Enuresis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:320701. Epub 2015 Jun 16. Quelle: www.jcm.co.uk

ACUPUNCTURE AND BEDWETTING

Within 6 months, 43 were completely dry and 2 were dry on at least 80% of nights. (Scand J Urol Nephrol 2001 Feb;35(1):40-3). A previous study had shown a 50% improvement in nocturnal enuresis in a group of children treated with two alternating groups of points: i. bilateral Sanyinjiao SP-6, Kunlun BL-60, Taichong LIV-3 and Zhongji REN-3; ii. bilateral Yinlingquan SP-9, Taixi KID-3, Neiting ST-44 and Guanyuan REN-4 (mixed manual and electro acupuncture). (Scand J Urol Nephrol 2000;34:21-26). Quelle: www.jcm.co.uk

ACUPUNCTURE & CHILDHOOD ENURESIS

A study carried out in a Romanian hospital for severely handicapped children aged between 3 and 18 years showed significant benefit in treating nocturnal enuresis in 29% of patients. The most responsive group was the 10-14 year olds (50%). Children with the most severe mental retardation and those with daytime fecal and urinary incontinence responded least. Points selected were Guanyuan REN-4, Sanyinjiao SP-6, Zusanli ST-36, Shenshu BL-23, Pangguangshu BL-28 and Ciliao BL-32. Additional points were needled in difficult cases. Treatment was given 3 or 4 times a week for a total of approximately 20 treatments (Acupuncture in Medicine, December 1999,...
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ACUPUNCTURE & CHILDHOOD CONSTIPATION

An Israeli study selected children from 3-13 years (median 6 years) of age with constipation of over 6 months duration and gave either true acupuncture at Xingjian LIV-2, Hegu L.I.-4 and Zusanli ST-36, or sham acupuncture (stratum corneum penetration at non-acupuncture points near the real points). Bowel movements per week rose from 1.4 to 5.6 in female patients after 5 true acupuncture treatments, and from 1.4 to 4.2 in male patients after 10 treatments, whilst there was no improvement in males during the sham acupuncture 5-week period, and only a slight improvement in females. (Broide E, Pintov S, Portnoy S,...
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ACUPRESSURE INCREASES WEIGHT GAIN IN PREMATURE INFANTS

Forty subjects were randomised into two groups in the Taiwanese study. Those in the experimental group underwent a standard procedure of acupressure at Zhongwan REN-12, Zusanli ST-36, Yongquan KID-1, abdominal rubbing, spleen and stomach meridian massage, and kneading points along the bladder meridian. Treatments was administered for 15 minutes per session, one hour before meals, three times daily over 10 days. The control group underwent routine care. The infants’ body weights and the volume of milk ingested were recorded daily. The daily average weight gain of the infants in the experimental group was 32.7g, compared with 27.3g in the control...
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ACUPRESSURE AT YINGTANG REDUCES KIDS’ PRE-OP ANXIETY

In the American study, fifty-two children were randomised to receive an acupressure bead placed either at Yintang (M-HN-3) or at a sham point above the left eyebrow. Children in the Yintang group were found to have experienced reduced anxiety during the 30 minute pre-operative waiting period, whereas those in the sham group experienced increased anxiety (-9% vs +2%). The acupressure intervention had no measurable effect on levels of consciousness during anaesthesia (measured by bispectral index monitoring), nor on requirements for anaesthetic during the procedure. (Extra-1 acupressure for children undergoing anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 2008 Sep;107(3):811-6). Quelle: www.jcm.co.uk

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